The reality is more simple and more complex than that. As a sovereign country with a monopoly on emitting dollars, the US simply doesn't need taxes to fund itself. It can just emit enough dollars to cover any expenses. However we know that if too much currency is in circulation compared to the quantity of available goods and services to purchases, it loses some of its value. Here come taxes to remove some currency from circulation and to provide targeted incentives. Both processes at the federal level are entirely disparate, which makes any "how are we going to pay for that" argument about federal programs ignorant at best, disingenuous at worst.
Notice how I emphasized federal government. This doesn't apply to state and city that have a budget constrained by revenues. However even in these cases local taxes don't have to exactly match expenses thanks to federal subventions which don't need to be offset by any taxes as I showed above.